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clxx JOrBNAL OF THE ANTHBOPOLOQICAX, SOCIETY. 

The Pbesident then announced the papers to be read on the Slst 
inst., and the meeting adjourned. 



Mat 3l8T, 1864. 

Oeobqe Wnr, Esq., F.B.S., w th« chaib. 

The Chaibhan regretted to state that the serious illness of their 
President, Dr. Hunt, prevented him Arom being present, and that 
they would not, consequently, have his paper read as had been 
announced, and on which considerable discussion had been expected. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following presents were acknowledged : Bulletins de la Soci4t4 
d'Anthropologie de Paris, from the Society; casts of three Basque 

skulls, from the cemetery of Z (Guipuscoa), and casts of three 

skulls, from the cavern of Orrouy (Oise), Bronze Age, presented by 
the Paris Society of Anthropology. 

The names of the following gentlemen, elected Fellows since the 
previous meeting, were then announced : — 

The Rev. W. Selwyn ; T. H. Wickes, Esq. ; H. V. Crassweller, 
Esq. ; T. J. Smith, Esq.; C. H. Gardner, Esq. ; C. A. Du Val, Esq.; 
R. Austin, Esq. ; H. 6. Sheridan, Esq., M.P. ; T. J. Dobson, Esq. ; 
V. Ruskin, Esq. ; J. Martin, Esq. ; F. W. Aley, Esq. ; W. 3. Sharpe, 
Esq. ; J. Thompson, Esq. ; J. Pamell, Esq ; Sir Andrew Smith, C.B. ; 
H. B. Riddell, Esq. ; F. B. Montgomerie, Esq. ; G. H. Ogston, Esq. ; 
Alderman D. H. Stone; F.Thompson, Esq.; W. L. Scott, Esq.; A. 
Sanders, Esq.; The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's; T. 
R. P. Shute, Esq. ; J. Drummond, Esq. ; P. Sharp, Esq. ; C. Jellicoe, 
Esq. ; J. Morris, Esq. ; and W. T. Pritchard, Esq. 

The Chaibman stated that the Council had appointed Mr. Geo. E. 
Roberts as honorary secretary of the Society, in the place of Mr. 
Carter Blake, resigned, and that the Council considered themselves 
very fortunate in obtaining his valuable services for that office. 

Extreme Hypertrophy of the Skull. 

Dr. G. D. GiJBB, M.A., LL.D., exhibited two calvaria from skulls 
enormously hypertrophied, from the museum of the Westminster 
Hospital. They were very remarkable skulls, and exhibited the effects 
of disease in a striking manner, producing extreme deformity 
from their great size and peculiar shape, of which he believed that 
the Neanderthal skull might probably be an example. Their ge- 
neral size, massive character, and weight were such as are rarely 
witnessed. They would astonish those persons not accustomed to 
witness the effects of disease on the cranium, and if they had been 
accidentally discovered imbedded in the earth, the impression might 
have been conveyed that they belonged to some new and distinct race 
of human beings. The experienced pathologist, however, would at 
once draw the line of distinction between them and healthy specimens. 
In one specimen, the brain must have been of the natural dimensions, 



OIBB ON HTP£BTBOFHIED SKULLS. Cclxxi 

althougli the parietes of the skull had become greatly thickened, and 
the general weight nearly doubled ; whilst in the other the bone was 
lighter, the walls equally thickened, and the cavity of the cranium 
encroached upon by the disease, and the brain evidently compressed 
in some parts. Dr. Qibb then read the following description of the 
heaviest calvarium, taken from the catalogue of the hospital museum : 
" Section of a skull, just above the crista galli. The thinnest part, 
near the anterior inferior angle of the parietal bone, is half an inch in 
thickness, the thickest, near the posterior inferior angle, is nine- 
tenths of an inch thick. There is no obvious distinction between the 
diploe and the inner and outer tables. The bone is of a uniform coarse 
texture, and possesses considerable hardness. The parietal fossffi 
are increased in depth ; the frontal are diminished. The meningeal 
arterial grooves are very deep, and are here and there converted into 
canals by the joining of their edges. The openings of numerous veins 
are visible on the inner surface. No traces of any of the sutures re- 
main either on the internal or external surface. The weight is not so 
great as its size and thickness would indicate, being only one pound 
eleven ounces and a half, whilst that of on ordinary skull sawn off at 
the same point is less by one pound." Dr. Gibb remarked that the 
foregoing account hardly did justice to the specimen ; its extreme 
width was seven inches and a quarter; its antero-posterior length, 
eight inches; and its circumference, twenty-four inches and three- 
quarters ; and, when the skull was uninjured, its great size, peculiar 
form, and singular aspect, must have invested it with considerable 
interest ; he regretted much that the entire skull had not been pre- 
served. Dr. Gibb further said, that his chief object in bringing these 
skulls before the notice of the Society, was to have it placed on re- 
cord that there were such remarkable instances of hypertrophied 
skulls in existence ; for if similar specimens were discovered here- 
after, and it was not known that such an abnormal state was owing 
to disease, it might occasion some perplexity. He produced another 
specimen, which was the entire skull of a -female greatly diseased 
with syphilis. The outer surface, and the interior also, were much 
corroded, producing perforations, and here and there the bone was 
almost transparent. The sutures had become blended together. Dr. 
Gibb observed, that it was of importance, when paying attention to 
the natural history of man, that the anthropologist should not be un- 
aware of the effects of disease in producing peculiarities, of which the 
skulls he had exhibited were examples. 

Mr. HoLTHousE said, in reference to one of the skulls from the 
museum of Westminster Hospital, that there was no history con- 
nected with it. All that was known was, that it belonged to Mr. 
Lynn, who was accustomed to use it as an illustrative specimen 
in his lectures. Microscopical examination had detected that the 
original skull was inside the bony mass, and that the thickness of the 
skull was caused by osseous deposit on both sides, the original bone 
occupying the centre. It had evidently been formed by a morbid 
process, and not by healthy accretion. He had reason to believe that 
this skull was once the property of John Hunter. 



CClxxii jroURNAL OV THE ANTHBOPOLOOICAL SOCIEXr. 

Mr. Mackenzie inquired whether Dr. Gibb had known the case 
of the female, whose skull he had exhibited, in life, and was then 
aware that the bony structure was destroyed ? It would be in- 
teresting to have an absolute specimen of the effects on the skull 
produced by a known disease. He thought it would be desirable 
that a microscopical examination should be made of the skull, to see 
the character of the disintegration that had taken place. 

Dr. QiBB replied that he had seen the case during life, and that 
the female was in a most fearful stale of disease. There were ulcers 
over the skull, and the bone had become exposed. Some of the 
ulcers, he had no doubt, penetrated the skull, and openings can now 
be seen penetrating it. She had lost the bones of her nose ; and the 
case was so remarkable, that he had adopted means to obtain the 
skeleton after death for examination. He slated further, in reply to 
Mr. Mackenzie, that the woman had been dead about eighteen years. 
He said he intended to submit the other skulls to a careful inspec- 
tion, and would endeavour to complete a model of the larger and 
most peculiar one, and, if his efforts were successful, he should have 
casts made of it, and would present one to the Society, to be placed 
in their museum. 

The following papers were then read : — 

On a Jaw from Buildwas Abbey, Oo. Salop. By Geo. E. Robests, 
Esq., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., and C. Caetee Blake, F.G.S., F.A.S.L. 
The line of the Severn Valley railway cut through the burial ground 
of the monks who tenanted Buildwas Abbey, near Broseley. The jaw 
exhibited was obtained by Mr. Boberts on the spot, during the cutting. 
No remains of coffins were found, although the number of human bones 
thrown out was not inconsiderable. 

This jaw is that of a powerful young man. The condyle is large ; 
and the coronoid process has the same abnormal forward curve of its 
anterior border, as is noticed by Professor Owen in his paper on the 
Andaman islander's skeleton* {British Aitociation Reports, 1861), 
which is not unusual in English lower jaws. Only the first and second 
molars are in place. The number of cusps accord with those in 
typical European jaws. 

Mr. RoBBETS said he was in Shropshire at the time the railway 
cutting was being made, and then found the jaw bone which was on 
the table. It appeared to possess some characters that were not very 
common, and he brought it away to place it in the Society's museum. 

Mr. C. Cabteb Blake observed, that the specimen which Mr. 
Roberts had presented to the Society was a very curious jaw ; and it 
repeated the peculiarity in its formation, on which Professor Owen 
laid stress, in the paper he read at the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation in 1861. The same abnormal form of the coronoid process 

• "The lower jaw shows a variety in the shape of the coronoid process which 
is oocBsioDally seen in Europeans ; it is broader and lower than usual ; the front 
border is more convex at its upper half, and forms with the concave lower part a 
deeper and more decided sigmoid curve." (Owen, loe. cit.)